`contour`

function
Given a matrix, and optionally the grid of X-axis and Y-axis values, it is possible to create a contour plot in R with the `contour`

function.

```
# Data
x <- -10:10
y <- -10:10
z <- sqrt(outer(x ^ 2, y ^ 2, "+"))
contour(x, y, z)
# You can also type, the following
# but the axes will be between 0 and 1
contour(z)
```

**Number of levels**

The `nlevels`

argument controls the number of contour levels to be drawn. The default value is 10.

```
# Data
x <- -10:10
y <- -10:10
z <- sqrt(outer(x ^ 2, y ^ 2, "+"))
contour(x, y, z,
nlevels = 20)
```

**Contour lines**

Note that you can change the line width and line style of the contours with `lwd`

and `lty`

, respectively, as well as the size for contour labels with `labcex`

, change the labels with `labels`

or remove them setting `drawlabels = FALSE`

.

```
# Data
x <- -10:10
y <- -10:10
z <- sqrt(outer(x ^ 2, y ^ 2, "+"))
contour(x, y, z,
labcex = 1.2, labels = 1:10,
lwd = 2, lty = 1)
```

**Color palette**

You can change the color of the contour lines with `col`

, passing a color or a color palette, such in the example below, which draws contours for the `volcano`

data set.

```
# Color palette
cols <- hcl.colors(10, "YlOrRd")
contour(volcano,
col = cols)
```

**Overlay contour over a scatter plot**

If you want to overlay contour lines over a scatter plot you can use the `kde2d`

function from `MASS`

to calculate the kernel density estimate of the variables as shown in the example below. Recall to set `add = TRUE`

inside `contour`

.

```
# install.packages("MASS")
library(MASS)
# Data
x <- rnorm(500)
y <- rnorm(500)
z <- kde2d(x, y, n = 50)
plot(x, y, pch = 19)
contour(z, lwd = 2 add = TRUE,
col = hcl.colors(10, "Spectral"))
```

`filled.contour`

function
A similar function to `contour`

is `filled.contour`

, which fills the areas between the contour lines. The function behaves almost the same as the function from the previous section.

`filled.contour(volcano)`

**Number of levels**

In this function you can also specify the number of levels with `nlevels`

.

```
filled.contour(volcano,
nlevels = 10)
```

**Color palette**

The color palette can be set with `color.palette`

or specifying a vector of colors with `col`

.

```
filled.contour(volcano,
color.palette = terrain.colors)
```

**Filled contour with lines**

The `plot.axes`

function can be used to add a contour over the filled contour plot, as shown in the following example.

```
filled.contour(volcano, plot.axes = {
axis(1)
axis(2)
contour(volcano, add = TRUE, lwd = 2)
}
)
```

See also